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The aluminum cations, which are tetrahedrally coordinated in the zeolite lattice, can be isomorphously substituted by other metal Zeolite Catalysis in the Conversion of Methanol into Olefins 21 cations, thus leading to isotypes. When the sodium cations, which are ion-exchangeable, are replaced by protons, the zeolite becomes a solid acid. 34 nm. 54 nm. A simplified picture of the ZSM-5 channel system is shown in Figure 5. 55 nm (Figure 6). The crystallographic structure of ZSM-11 is more symmetric than that of ZSM-5: it has tetragonal symmetry.

Thermal activation would then lead to a de-metallization of the lattice. This process should be favored by distortion in the Si-0 framework when the length of the Me-0 bond differs greatly from the length of the Si-0 bond. Dehertog and G r ~ b e t ' ~observed ~ a shift in the NMR-spectrum of the tetrahedrally coordinated Ga in [Gal-ZSM-5 toward octahedrally coordinated Ga as a function of calcination temperature, indicating that Ga-ions were being removed from the framework. 15* ZSM-5 catalysts containing zirconium and/or haf and titanium156 are also more selective in the conversion of methanol to olefins.

L” found that the yield of methane was closely related to the extent of coking. Since methane and the C,+ fraction gradually increased with time on stream, it was suggested that the coke deposition on the acid sites enhances the secondary cracking reactions through a nonionic mechanism. Langnerl’l and Schulz et a1 16’ also believe significant amounts of methane to be symptomatic for coke laydown. The main mechanism of methane formation from methanol would be a nonionic methylation of the coke deposits, followed by elimination of methane.

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