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By Curtis D. Klaassen

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Additional resources for Casarett & Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons (7th Edition)

Sample text

Carson R: Silent Spring. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1962. Christison R: A Treatise on Poisons, 4th ed. Philadelphia: Barrington & Howell, 1845. Doll R, Peto R: The Causes of Cancer. New York: Oxford University Press, 1981. Donaldson HH: The history and zoological position of the albino rat. Natl Acad Sci 15:365–369, 1912. DuBois K, Geiling EMK: Textbook of Toxicology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1959. Gunther RT: The Greek Herbal of Dioscorides. New York: Oxford University Press, 1934. Guthrie DA: A History of Medicine.

Antag- 17 onistic effects of chemicals are often very desirable in toxicology and are the basis of many antidotes. There are four major types of antagonism: functional, chemical, dispositional, and receptor. Functional antagonism occurs when two chemicals counterbalance each other by producing opposite effects on the same physiologic function. Advantage is taken of this principle in that the blood pressure can markedly fall during severe barbiturate intoxication, which can be effectively antagonized by the intravenous administration of a vasopressor agent such as norepinephrine or metaraminol.

Serious lack of oxygen delivery to tissues after exposure to doses of methemoglobin-producing chemicals that would be harmless to individuals with normal NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase activity. Immediate versus Delayed Toxicity Immediate toxic effects can be defined as those that occur or develop rapidly after a single administration of a substance, whereas delayed toxic effects are those that occur after the lapse of some time. Carcinogenic effects of chemicals usually have a long latency period, often 20 to 30 years after the initial exposure, before tumors are observed in humans.

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