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By Lawrence M. Graves

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181. 18. R. K. Luneberg, The mathematical theory of optics, Brown University, 1944. Propagation of electromagnetic waves, New York University, 1948. 19. M. Kline, An asymptotic solution of Maxwell's equations, Comm. Pure Appl. Math. vol. IV no. 2-3 (August, 1951), pp. 225-263. Asymptotic solution of linear hyperbolic partial differential equations, J. Rational Mech. Anal. vol. 3 no. 3 (May, 1954). 20. F. G. Friedlander, Geometrical optics and Maxwell's equations, Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. vol.

Experimentally some light is observed in these shadows. Since our theory fails to account for this light, the theory is incomplete. To complete the theory, we introduce another new type of ray, which we call an imaginary ray. Such a ray is a complex-valued solution of the ray equations. Thus, an imaginary ray in a homogeneous medium is a complex straight line . The definition presupposes that n(x) C aus ti c is analytic or piecewise analytic. Now we may consider an analytic normal congruence of real rays.

Thus the reflecting surface is a branch surface of T. If many rays-incident, reflected, and refracted-pass through P, then T(P) is many-valued, and the reflecting and refracting surfaces are the branch surfaces on which two or three different branches are equal. All the foregoing considerations can also be applied to diffracted rays. We A GEOMETRICAL THEORY OF DIFFRACTION 41 first define the eiconal I(P) as the optical distance to P from some fixed wavefront measured along any ray, ordinary or diffracted.

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