Quantity 11a at the biotechnology of wastewater is succeeded by means of the second one of 3 volumes on environmental tactics: quantity 11b provides a profound evaluation of the decontamination of soil.
half I bargains with basic features of soil decontamination. Microbial basics and specific degradation procedures are handled partially II, and analytical innovations and strategies of soil clean-up are awarded partly III.
Chapter 1 infected Soil components, assorted nations and Contaminants, tracking of Contaminants (pages 5–41): Wolfgang Ulrici
Chapter 2 Characterization of the Geological and Hydrogeological state of affairs, results on ordinary Geochemical obstacles and Remediation (pages 43–59): Wilhelm G. Coldewey and Christoph Klinger
Chapter three Bioavailability of Contaminants (pages 61–88): Bernd Mahro
Chapter four “Humification” strategy or Formation of Refractory Soil natural topic (pages 89–125): Matthias Kastner
Chapter five Ecotoxicological evaluate (pages 127–141): Adolf Eisentrager and Kerstin Hund
Chapter 6 cardio Degradation via Microorganisms (pages 144–167): Wolfgang Fritsche and Martin Hofrichter
Chapter 7 ideas of Anaerobic Degradation of natural Compounds (pages 169–192): Bernhard Schink
Chapter eight Bacterial Degradation of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons (pages 193–209): Johann E. T. van Hylckama Vlieg and Dick B. Janssen
Chapter nine Degradation of fragrant and Polyaromatic Compounds (pages 211–239): Matthias Kastner
Chapter 10 Degradation of Chlorinated Compounds (pages 241–271): Catrin Wischnak and Rudolf Muller
Chapter eleven Microbial Degradation of Compounds with Nitro services (pages 273–302): Karl?Heinz Blotevogel and Thomas Gorontzy
Chapter 12 Thermal tactics, Scrubbing/Extraction, Bioremediation and Disposal (pages 304–317): Michael Koning, Karsten Hupe and Rainer Stegmann
Chapter thirteen Bioremediation with Heap process (pages 319–328): Volker Schulz?Berendt
Chapter 14 Bioreactors (pages 329–347): Rene H. Kleijntjens and Karel Ch. A. M. Luyben
Chapter 15 In situ Remediation (pages 349–370): Thomas Held and Helmut Dorr
Chapter sixteen Degradation by means of crops — Phytoremediation (pages 371–384): Jerald L. Schnoor
Chapter 17 Phytoremediation of Metals (pages 385–397): David E. Salt and Alan J. M. Baker
Chapter 18 complex in situ Bio?Remediation — A Hierarchy of know-how offerings (pages 399–414): Ronald Unterman, Mary F. Deflaun and Robert J. Steffan
Chapter 19 software of Immobilized Microorganisms in Soil Decontamination (pages 415–423): Hans?Jurgen Rehm
Chapter 20 Bacterial task Enhancement and Soil Decontamination (pages 425–439): Fu?Min Menn, James P. Easter and Gary S. Sayler
Chapter 21 Genetically Engineered Microorganisms and Bioremediation (pages 441–463): Fu?Min Menn, James P. Easter and Gary S. Sayler
Chapter 22 chances, Limits and destiny advancements of Soil Bioremediation (pages 465–476): Jurgen Klein
Chapter 23 Sampling and research of reliable topic (pages 477–507): Michael Roemer
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Extra info for Biotechnology: Environmental Processes II, Volume 11b, Second Edition, Second Edition
System Elements which Proved Efficient within Specific Systems ~~~~~~~ System Elements Remarks ~~~~~~~ ~ (1) Non-Polluting Sites Open declaration of the caveat emptor principle for ground transactions open declaration of practiced liability and financing rule Obligation of site auditing when planning ground transactions corrective element in the interest of protecting the buyer of ground; the audit may be waived if a certificate of multifunctionality can be produced; possibly, limitation of certificate validity for industrial ground Establishment of site auditors relief of authorities, establishing, at the same time, market for auditors; if certification procedures for site auditors are sufficiently demanding, authorities may even take over responsibility for expertise which might not stand the demands for correctness Tying systematical administrative identification and registration activities to decisions that are preset in a binding manner, depending only on the data obtained relief of authorities from data raising activities for unclear or unnecessary purposes; this appears to be particularly justified by the fact that completeness of data will never be guaranteed, and implementation deficits will not allow to control observance of soil protection requirements to any extent of completeness; thus, identification activities make sense only if the data are definitely needed for administrative decision making; the demands for security from soil pollution hazards may be satisfied by a site audit system Reactive registration of non-polluting sites relief of authorities from book keeping Release of non-polluting sites from administrative control relief of authorities from control activities, a site audit system showing the risks of incomplete remediation for the buyer as well as for the vendor, and a restrictive delisting practice refusing certificates if soil cannot be put to multifunctional use Administrative action triggered by change of site use no need for action if there is no nuisance or damage to third parties; incentive for demanding remediation if disadvantages to ground vendors were too high Fixing of minimum remediation goals on the basis of assessment of risks, taking the intended use and potentially affected objects of protection into account minimum requirement of protecting human health in the interest of implementing the system; may be achieved by decontamination or containment for which equivalence is stated using the Dutch IBC criteria Delisting of sites restored to multifunc- incentive for restoring multifunctionality; reduces the apparent economic advantage af containment measures tionality Listing of site use restrictions within the competent authority’s register and/or the land register in the interest of buyers; incentive for restoring multifunctionality Use of partially decontaminated soil fo1 saving clean soil resources if activities, such as road construction, non-sensitive purposes tend to contaminate soil anvwav: need for develooment of minimum quality standards by construction industry i , I Introduction 31 Tab.
12. , ground value: using technical rather than financial cri- may be communicated as expressing owner’s social responsibility teria, such as prevention of existing and foreseeable hazards from third parties Explicit definition of cause and extent of state’s potential liability and share fixing the rules of the game; definition must be simple and easy to understand by everyone in order to prevent misleading interpretation and abuse Reimbursement and compensation for owner of suspect contaminated site if investigations do not confirm suspicion on grounds of fairness Exemption of innocentlbona fide potentially responsible parties element of fault in determining liability: criteria for claims of innocencelaction in good faith may be exacting in order to prevent abuse 32 1 Contaminated Soil Areas, Different Countries and Contaminants, Monitoring of Contaminants Tab.
A part of this precipitation evaporates and returns to the atmosphere. Another part flows across the ground surface to the next river and to the ocean at last. The rest infiltrates the ground and creates the groundwater body. This groundwater can return to ground surface through springs or it can flow to the next stream and with this to the ocean. During this cycle the form of water may change, but the total amount of water in or on the Earth and in the atmosphere remains the same. 2 Subsurface Water Subsurface water or undergroundwater is referred as all water beneath the surface.