By Konstantin Bogdanov
Biology in Physics is an intensive new publication which bridges the space among biology and physics. the purpose is to advertise an interdisciplinary trade of medical details and concepts, with a view to stimulate cooperation in examine. The scope of this quantity explores either the strategies and methods of biophysics and illustrates the most recent advances in our figuring out of the various particular mechanisms which are utilized by residing organisms. This quantity represents a different attempt to compile the data that will let a nonbiologically orientated physicist to understand the $64000 function that physics performs in existence sciences. Key positive factors * An creation to biophysics for non-specialist * Covers the entire very important topices in glossy biophysics * Takes account of the newest details rising from biophysical initiatives * studies on novel healing recommendations * provides an advanced-level evaluation of mechanisms that keep an eye on various tactics in organisms starting from bacterial to whales
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Additional resources for Biology in physics. Is life matter
Flexion-compression [#1] 2. Vertical compression 3. Flexion-distraction [#2] 4. Extension-compression 5. Extension-distraction 6. Lateral ﬂexion Descriptive Compression Burst Facet dislocation Unilateral Bilateral • Compression fx: collar • Burst fx: ACDF (anterior corpectomy, diskectomy, and fusion [ant. plate]) vs decompression/post. fusion) • Flexion-compression: ؠStable: collar or halo; ؠUnstable: ant. or post. fusion • Flexion-distraction/ facet dx: Closed (acute, awake pt) vs open (unconscious or late presentation) reduction with anterior (ACDF) or posterior spinal fusion COMPLICATIONS: Neurologic: quadriplegia, paraplegia, radiculopathy.
Injury results in C1-2 instability. Posterior to apical ligament, secondary stabilizer. Secondary stabilizer Odontoid to occipital condyles Strong, stabilizing ligaments, limit rotation & lateral bending. Injury results in C1-2 instability. Apical Odontoid to ant. foramen magnum Thin ligament provides minimal stability Accessory Axis body to occipital condyles Secondary stabilizers NETTER’S CONCISE ORTHOPAEDIC ANATOMY 43 2 2 Spine • JOINTS Clivus (surface feature) of basilar part of occipital bone Tectorial membrane Capsule of atlantooccipital joint Basilar part of occipital bone Anterior view Pharyngeal tubercle Anterior atlantooccipital membrane Posterior atlantooccipital membrane Capsule of atlantooccipital joint Atlas (C1) Capsule of lateral atlantoaxial joint Deeper (accessory) part of tectorial membrane Axis (C2) Capsule of zygapophyseal joint (C2—3) Posterior longitudinal ligament Lateral atlantoaxial joint (opened up) Capsule of zygapophyseal joint (C3—4) Anterior longitudinal ligament Hypoglossal canal Tectorial membrane Basion Apical ligament of dens Vertebral artery Posterior margin of foramen magnum (opisthion) Posterior atlantooccipital membrane Superior longitudinal band of cruciate ligament of atlas Anterior atlantooccipital membrane Posterior arch of atlas (C1) Ligamentum nuchae Anterior arch of atlas (C1) Posterior atlantoaxial membrane Dens (odontoid process) of axis (C2) Articular cavity Spinous process of axis (C2) Transverse ligament of atlas Ligamentum flavum Inferior longitudinal band of cruciate ligament of atlas Anterior longitudinal ligament Posterior longitudinal ligament LIGAMENT ATTACHMENTS COMMENTS INTERVERTEBRAL ARTICULATION Adjacent vertebrae are joined by a complex of smaller joints/articulations, ligaments, muscles, & connecting structures.
Strong, yellow, not a long continuous structure. Hypertrophy may contribute to nerve root impingement. Ligamentum nuchae Occipital protuberance to C1 post. arch & C2-C6 spinous processes Continuation of supraspinous ligament Supraspinous Dorsal spinous processes to C7 Strong. Ligamentum nuchae is its superior continuation. Interspinous Between spinous processes Weak. Torn in ligamentous ﬂexion-distraction injuries. Intertransverse Between transverse processes Weak ligament, adds little support.