By Samuel C. Shepherd Jr
Avenues of religion records how faith flourished in southern towns after the flip of the century and the way a cadre of clergy and laity created a significantly innovative spiritual tradition in Richmond, the bastion of the outdated South. well-known because the former capital of the Confederacy, Richmond emerges as a dynamic and growing to be commercial urban invigorated through the social activism of its Protestants. via studying six mainline white denominations-Episcopalians, Methodists, Presbyterians, Baptists, Disciples of Christ, and Lutherans-Samuel C. Shepherd Jr. emphasizes the level to which town fostered spiritual range, at the same time "blind spots" remained in regard to Catholics, African americans, Mormons, and Jews. Shepherd explores such themes as evangelism, interdenominational cooperation, the temperance crusade, the Sunday university move, the overseas peace tasks, and the increasing function of lay humans of either sexes. He additionally notes the community's frequent rejection of fundamentalism, a non secular phenomenon virtually immediately linked to the South, and indicates the way it nurtured social reform to strive against a bunch of city difficulties linked to public wellbeing and fitness, schooling, housing, women's suffrage, prohibition, kids, and prisons. In lucid prose and with very good use of fundamental assets, Shepherd can provide a clean portrait of Richmond Protestants who embraced swap and remodeled their group, making it an energetic, revolutionary spiritual heart of the hot South.
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Extra resources for Avenues of Faith: Shaping the Urban Religious Culture of Richmond, Virginia, 1900-1929 (Religion and American Culture)
For 1900 the city and its soon-to-be annexed neighbor, Manchester, reported a combined $30,646,808 of manufactured goods. In 1929 the metropolitan Richmond area reported $234,619,094 of industrial production. ” During the next decades, tobacco continued its reign but changed some of its raiment and shared some of its economic authority. In the late nineteenth century, Richmond’s tobacco ascendancy had been challenged by North Carolina competitors. The scores of locally owned tobacco factories gradually became part of national corporations such as American Tobacco Company, American Cigar Company, P.
In 1900 approximately 2,600 people held such positions, but by 1930 almost 11,000 worked at such jobs. Richmond’s community of professionals climbed from 1,888 in 1900 to almost 6,500 three decades later. 24 Even in an era of dynamic changes, gender and race shaped the city’s occupational structure. In Ellen Glasgow’s ¤ctional Richmond of the 1890s, spunky Gabriella Carr horri¤ed friends and family with her decision to work as a salesperson in a dry goods store. S. census found approximately four hundred saleswomen in Richmond, but by 1930 the number of saleswomen and clerks in stores reached 1,635.
Comparing Richmond to twenty-four other American cities, a local newspaper disclosed that only Atlanta spent less money per student per year. Reformers soon changed that situation. Already at work were the Conference for Education in the South and the Southern Education Board, which united northern businessmen and educators with southern reformers. Richmond’s participants included Richmond College professor Samuel Chiles Mitchell, Beverley and Mary-Cooke Munford, and B. B. Valentine and his wife, Lila Meade Valentine, of Monumental Episcopal Church.