By Gordon C. Weir MD, Susan Bonner-Weir PhD, Arun Sharma PhD (auth.), Jay Skyler (eds.)
This guide is a useful source for bettering the administration of diabetes. Chapters disguise the basics, together with epidemiology, historical past and actual exam, and practical reviews. Diabetes in young ones, youth, adults, and geriatrics are addressed. Differential prognosis is emphasised, and evidence-based directions and patient-specific issues reduction the reader with harm assessment and care. significantly, the publication highlights the significance of figuring out diabetic signs while deciding on the resource of health problems. additionally, the textual content provides the spectrum of cures for diabetes. The ebook is whole with appendices that specify the evidence-based procedure used all through and the technological know-how in the back of healing modalities.
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Additional info for Atlas of Diabetes: Fourth Edition
AKT directly stimulates cell growth through the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin C1 (mTORC1) complex – composed of mTOR, mLST8, and raptor – which phosphorylates the S6 kinase and eIF4E-BP1 (also known as PHAS-1) to stimulate protein synthesis [78–80]. The regulatory mechanism involves several steps, beginning with AKTmediated phosphorylation of at least ﬁve sites (Ser939, Ser981, Ser1130, Ser1132, and Thr1462) on TSC2 (tuberin), which in complex with TSC1 (hamartin) functions as a GTPase-activating protein for the small G protein RHEB (Ras homolog enriched in brain).
Cell 2000, 103:211–225. 5. Sherwood OD: Relaxin’s physiological roles and other diverse actions. Endocr Rev 2004, 25:205–234. 26. : Postreceptor insulin resistance contributes to human dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis. J Clin Invest 2009, 119:315–322. 6. Wilkinson TN, Speed TP, Tregear GW, Bathgate RA: Evolution of the relaxin-like peptide family. BMC Evol Biol 2005, 5:14. 27. : Impact of common type 2 diabetes risk polymorphisms in the DESIR prospective study. Diabetes 2008, 57:244–254. 7. Clemmons DR: Involvement of insulin-like growth factor-I in the control of glucose homeostasis.
AS160 and the related TBC1D1 are RabGAPs (Rab GTPase-activating proteins) implicated in regulating the trafﬁcking of GLUT4 storage vesicles to the cell surface (reviewed by Sakamoto and Holman ). Because Rab proteins regulate many steps in vesicle transport, AS160 might link the insulin signaling cascade to the redistribution and fusion of GLUT4-containing vesicles to the plasma membrane. AS160 contains six AKT phosphorylation sites, which can regulate the activity of the Rab GTPase-activating (GAP) domain.