By Charles R. Krahmalkov
This quantity contains the phonology, orthography, morphology, syntax, language and utilization of the Phoenician-Punic language. It comprises examples from texts and dialects, together with fragments of a Punic drama, to deliver to existence the grammatical description of this language. the outline of the literary language holds that demanding and element reference of a given kind of the verb is essentially a functionality of syntax, no longer morphology.
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Additional resources for A Phoenician-Punic Grammar (Handbuch Der Orientalistik)
Phoenician orthography was always a mixture of historical spellings, reflecting the pronunciation of an earlier period, and phonetic spellings, reflecting contemporary pronunciation. "), pronounced ml but its standard spelling reflecting the earlier form miya, the yod being the consonantyod, not a matres lectionis. 9). Sometimes, historic spellings and phonetic spellings existed side by side; for instance, the standard spelling of the third person masculine singular possessive pronoun used with a noun m the genitive case was -Y -i3 the yod being a vowel-letter (mater lectionis); but still found occasionally is the earlier spelling - 0 .
6 myith mi it < mit (M'T"one hundred"). Note that in Punic the anaptyctic vowel may be preserved even when suffix pronouns are affixed: Pu Poen. 938 s i b i t h i m sibitim ("his residing"). Anaptyxis normally does not take place when the final root letter is the sonorant I or r. Diosc. 14 ers 'ers ('RS "land"); Poen. IfRS "shard"); CRAI1937 m o l c h molk (AHJT "molksacrifice"). 3b. Furtive a As in Hebrew, a so-called "furtive" a-vowel is heard in a closed syllable with long vowel in which the closing consonant is a laryngeal or pharyngeal: LA 1 p.
For n e a r / f a r deixis ("this, that"), the other (masc. £ fem. £) for nearer (the location of the speaker or immediate object of reference). Tyro-Sidonian has but one set, used for general near and far deixis. In phonology, too, Byblian diverged fromTyro-Sidonian, exhibiting for instance the retention of the vowel a under stress, without the characteristic Tyro-Sidonian sound-change a > o under stress. Mil-ki-a-sha-pa: Esar. Ba-'-al-ma-luku: Asb. 4). Remarkably, Byblian maintained itself as a distinct literary language throughout the period of Tyro-Sidonian supremacy in Phoenicia although it played no role in the Phoenician West, there being no single inscription in this dialect found outside Phoenicia proper.