Download A Guide to Practical Toxicology: Evaluation, Prediction, and by David Woolley, Visit Amazon's Adam Woolley Page, search PDF

By David Woolley, Visit Amazon's Adam Woolley Page, search results, Learn about Author Central, Adam Woolley,

This functional, ordinary, and informative textual content surveys easy ideas of toxicology. it really is a useful advisor to comparing toxicity and similar facts, forthcoming toxicity trying out and interpretation, and knowing the thoughts of danger prediction and hazard overview and management.

A consultant to functional Toxicology:

  • examines the best way to evaluation quite a few teams of chemicals—pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and agrochemicals
  • provides insights on toxicity selection, normality and naturality, prediction, and regulation

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Extra info for A Guide to Practical Toxicology: Evaluation, Prediction, and Risk, Second Edition

Sample text

Fluorocitrate, a metabolite of the rodenticide fluoroacetate, is bound by aconitase, an enzyme in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Thus, the central cycle of carbohydrate metabolism is inhibited by blocking the conversion of citrate to isocitrate, leading to the death of the recipient. The toxicity of many chemicals is due to their metabolites rather than to the parent molecule. Inhibition of this metabolism may mitigate or remove the toxic effects. This toxicity-inducing metabolism may be a normal fate for the molecule; fluoroacetate is always metabolized to fluorocitrate.

The ban on the use of animals to investigate cosmetics and their ingredients has been discussed above. Other examples are more complex; is it necessary to investigate the acute toxicity of a household cleaner if it is thought that it may be ingested accidentally by children or purposefully by adults? In the case of natural constituents of a traditional food, for example, mushrooms, is it ethical to investigate the toxicity of individual components? Possibly, especially if there has been evidence gathered from humans that there is a problem for which it is considered that the food or its constituent is responsible.

Where this enzyme activity is too low to remove all the available superoxide, reactive hydoxyl radicals are produced, with subsequent attack on the cellular lipid membranes through lipid peroxidation. The ability of these cells to concentrate paraquat and the locally high concentration of oxygen work together to cause severe local toxicity, affecting the whole animal. The fact that the molecule is not metabolized to a less toxic form but is regenerated, leaving it free to repeat the cycle many times, leads to depletion of NADPH with significant effects on cellular homeostasis.

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